Jammu and Kashmir - India travel & tourism
||Northern Most Part Of India
|Three Main Regions
||Jammu, Kashmir & Ladakh
||Dogri, Kashmiri, Hindi & Ladakhi
|Best Time To Visit
||Jammu - October To February
||Kashmir - May To October & November To February
||Ladakh - Mid June To September
Jammu and Kashmir came into being as a single political and geographical
entity following the Treaty of Amristar between the British Government
and Gulab singh signed on March 16, 1846. The Treaty handed over
the control of the Kashmir State to the Dogra ruler of Jammu who
had earlier annexed Ladakh. Thus a new State comprising three distinct
religions of Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh was formed with Maharaja
Gulab Singh as its founder ruler. The feudal dispensation in the
State, however, was too harsh for the people to live under and towards
the end of a hundred years of this rule when their Indian brethren
were fighting for independence from the British under the inspiring
leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and Pandit Jawahar Lal Nehru, the Kashmiris
led by a towering personality, the Sher-I-Kashmir Sheikh Mohammad
Abdullah, rose against the autocracy. The autocratic rule came down
heavily on the people’s freedom movement. However, the people
laid their lives in the cause of freedom and to uphold the ideals
of secularism, equality, democracy and brotherhood.
The high point of the movement was July 13, 1931 when 22 protesters
were martyred. The event strengthened the movement and contrary
to the expectations of the then rulers, the peopled emerged more
determined in their resolution to seek an end to autocratic rule.
By the time the rulers could realise the futility of breaking the
will of the people with the might of the State, the National Conference,
headed by Sheikh Mohammad Abdullah, had become a mass movement and
a force to reckon with. It broke the barriers of region and religion
and became a popular and secular voice of the people of the State
whose collective yearning was freedom from autocracy and the establishment
of a popular rule. The people’s movement spearheaded by the
National Conference saw several ups and downs with its leaders particularly
the Sher-I-Kashmir suffering vissitudes and long internment.
Jammu and Kashmir was one of about 565 princely States of India
on which the British paramountcy lapsed at the stroke of midnight
on August 15, 1947. While the power was transferred to the people
in British India, the rulers of the princely States were given an
option to join either of the two Dominions – India or Pakistan.
The Government of India Act 1935, as adopted in the Indian Independence
Act, 1947, provided, "An Indian State shall be deemed to have
acceded to the Dominion if the Governor General has signified the
acceptance of an Instrument of Accession executed by the rule thereof."
India, Pakistan and even Britain were party to these provisions.
So the choice of joining either of the Dominions was left to the
Rulers of the States concerned. Moreover, in the Indian Independence
Act, 1947, there was no provision for any conditional accession.
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